DEFINITION OF KWANZAA Kwanzaa is a unique African American celebration with focus on the traditional African values of family,
community responsibility, commerce, and self-improvement. Kwanzaa is neither political nor religious and despite some misconceptions,
is not a substitute for Christmas. It is simply a time of reaffirming African-American people, their ancestors and culture.
Kwanzaa, which means "first fruits of the harvest" in the African language Kiswahili, has gained tremendous acceptance.
Since its founding in 1966 by Dr. Maulana Karenga, Kwanzaa has come to be observed by more than18 million people worldwide,
as reported by the New York Times. When establishing Kwanzaa in 1966, Dr. Karenga included an additional "a" to
the end of the spelling to reflect the difference between the African American celebration (kwanzaa) and the Motherland spelling
Kwanzaa is based on the Nguzo Saba (seven guiding principles), one for each day of the observance, and is celebrated from
December 26th to January 1st.
* Umoja (oo-MO-jah) Unity stresses the importance of togetherness for the family and the community, which is reflected
in the African saying, "I am We," or "I am because We are."
* Kujichagulia (koo-gee-cha-goo-LEE-yah) Self-Determination requires that we define our common interests and make
decisions that are in the best interest of our family and community.
* Ujima (oo-GEE-mah) Collective Work and Responsibility reminds us of our obligation to the past, present and future,
and that we have a role to play in the community, society, and world.
* Ujamaa (oo-JAH-mah) Cooperative economics emphasizes our collective economic strength and encourages us to meet
common needs through mutual support.
* Nia (NEE-yah) Purpose encourages us to look within ourselves and to set personal goals that are beneficial to the
* Kuumba (koo-OOM-bah) Creativity makes use of our creative energies to build and maintain a strong and vibrant community.
* Imani (ee-MAH-nee) Faith focuses on honoring the best of our traditions, draws upon the best in ourselves, and helps
us strive for a higher level of life for humankind, by affirming our self-worth and confidence in our ability to succeed and
triumph in righteous struggle.
CELEBRATING KWANZAA As it is always better to get an early start, I suggest that you begin the first week in December by making
a check list for the following items: A Kinara (candle holder); Mkeka (placemat preferably made of straw); Mazao (crops, i.e.,
fruits and vegetables); Vibunzi/Muhindi (ears of corn to reflect the number of children in the household); Kikombe cha umoja
(communal unity cup); Mishumaa saba (seven candles, one black, three red, and three green); and Zawadi (gifts that are enriching).
It is important that the Kinara not be confused with the menorah.* The Kinara holds seven candles to reflect the seven
principles which are the foundation of Kwanzaa. The Mkeka (place mat) shouldn't present a problem. While straw is suggested
because it is traditional, cloth makes an adequate substitute. If cloth is used, one with an African print is preferred. A
plain straw basket or a bowl will do just fine. One last note, even households without any children should place an ear of
corn on the place mat to symbolize the African concept of social parenthood. All seven symbols are creatively placed on top
of the place mat, i.e., the symbols should be attractively arranged as they form the Kwanzaa centerpiece.
DECORATING THE HOME The Kinara along with the other symbols of Kwanzaa should dominate the room, which should be given
an African motif. The colors of Kwanzaa are black, red and green. This should be kept in mind when decorating the home. Black,
red and green streamers, balloons, cloth, flowers, and African prints can be hung tastefully around the room. Original art
and sculpture may be displayed as well.
GIFTS Kuumba (creativity) is greatly encouraged. Not only is Kuumba one of the seven principles, it also brings a sense
of personal satisfaction and puts one squarely into the spirit of Kwanzaa. Therefore, those symbols that can be made, should
be made. The giving of gifts during Kwanzaa should be affordable and of an educational or artistic nature. Gifts are usually
exchanged between parents and children and traditionally given on January 1st, the last day of Kwanzaa. However, gift giving
during Kwanzaa may occur at any time.
THE KWANZAA FEAST OR KARAMU The Kwanzaa Karumu is traditionally held on December 31st (participants celebrating New
Year's Eve, should plan their Karamu early in the evening). It is a very special event as it is the one Kwanzaa event that
brings us closer to our African roots. The Karamu is a communal and cooperative effort. Ceremonies and cultural expressions
are highly encouraged. It is important to decorate the place where the Karamu will be held, (e.g., home, community center,
church) in an African motif that utilizes black, red, and green color scheme. A large Kwanzaa setting should dominate the
room where the karamu will take place. A large Mkeka should be placed in the center of the floor where the food should be
placed creatively and made accessible to all for self-service. Prior to and during the feast, an informative and entertaining
program should be presented. Traditionally, the program involved welcoming, remembering, reassessment, recommitment and rejoicing,
concluded by a farewell statement and a call for greater unity.
Below is a suggested format for the Karamu program, from a model by Dr. Karenga.
Introductory Remarks and Recognition of Distinguished Guests and All Elders.
Cultural Expression (Songs, Music, Group Dancing, Poetry, Performances, Unity Circles)
Reflections of a Man, Woman and Child.
Kuchunguza Tena Na Kutoa Ahadi Tena (Reassessment and Recommitment)
Introduction of Distinguished Guest Lecturer and Short Talk.
Tamshi la Tambiko (Libation Statement)
It is tradition to pour libation in remembrance of the ancestors on all special occasions.
Kwanzaa, is such an occasion, as it provides
us an opportunity to reflect on our African past and American present. Water is suggested as it
holds the essence of life and should be placed
in a communal cup and poured in the direction
of the four winds; north, south, east, and west.
It should then be passed among family members
and guests who may either sip from
the cup or make a sipping gesture. LIBATION STATEMENT
For The Motherland cradle of civilization.
For the ancestors and their indomitable spirit
For the elders from whom we can learn much.
For our youth who represent the promise for tomorrow.
For our people the original people.
For our struggle and in remembrance of those who have struggled on our behalf.
For Umoja the principle of unity which should guide us in all that we do.
For the creator who provides all things great and small.
. Kikombe Cha Umoja (Unity Cup)
Kutoa Majina (Calling Names of Family Ancestors and Black Heroes)
Tamshi la Tutaonana (The Farewell Statement)